Training of the BMP-2 crew on the present generation of anti-tank guided missiles as well as other gunnery aspects of BMP-2 is essential to ensure operational readiness of Mechanised Infantry unites. With ever increasing cost of live missiles, 30mm Cannon and 7,62mm PKT ammunition, their availability for training has reduced considerably.
Training of the BMP-2 crew on the present generation of anti-tank guided missiles as well as other gunnery aspects of BMP-2 is essential to ensure operational readiness of Mechanised Infantry unites. With ever increasing cost of live missiles, 30mm Cannon and 7,62mm PKT ammunition, their availability for training has reduced considerably. The emphasis on simulator training needs to be correspondingly increased.
To achieve the training objective for BMP-2 crew, an upgradation in stand alone missilery training is sought through ATGM Simulator Konkurs. GSQR for the same has been approved vide GSCPC of Jul 2002. In the phase 2, it is intended to integrate missilery training with the basic gunnery training of BMP-2 for the reasons already explained above.
The BMP-2 Integrated Missile Simulator is intended to practice and master the skills of AGM, 30mm Cannon, 7.62mm PKT and 81mm Smoke Grenade Discharger system by BMP-2 commander and gunner. To ensure the same, simulator should replicate the turret station of BMP-2 to include various controls, sights and other electronic parts as akin to the real system as possible. Dummy breach block and ATGMs system could be provided to enhance realism of the Turret Sin environment. The simulator should provide simulation of terrain, targets, noises and various effects necessary to ensure complete missilery and gunnery training of BMP-2.
1.1.2. Proposed Service Environment
The BMP-2 Integrated Missile Simulator will be used to impart year round missile and gunnery training to Infantry Combat Vehicle crew in Mechanised Infantry units and School of instructions, in all weather conditions. The crew should be able to perform realistically and in correct sequence all actions relating to engagement of all types of ground and aerial targets with ATGM, 30mm Cannon and 7.62mm PKT likely to be encountered in the battle field. The use of the simulator should ensure retention and enhancement of gunnery skills and objective assessment of trainee's performance. Once in use, the BMP-2 Integrated Missile Simulator will supplement not only existing methods of training but also give a state of art training facility to Infantry Combat Vehicle crews and also help mitigate the adverse impact on op preparedness due to restrictions placed on firing of live ammunition.
The BMP-2 Integrated Missile Simulator should have the following characteristics:
(a) Missile Tracer Flare (MTF) unit to simulate Konkurs missile in flight.
(b) Firing post with connected optics and facility to simulate fire of Konkurs ATGM, 30mm Cannon, 7,62 PKT and 81mm Smoke Grande Discharger (SGD).
(c) Gunnery compartment housing all controls and sights as in the turret station of a BMP-2.
(d) Computer with necessary software for a high level of data generation to simulate various facilities.
(e) Digitised Projection System to project through the sights the terrain / target view duly integrated with battlefield effects.
(f) Realistic and functional replication of ATGM System, 30mm Cannon, 7.62mm PKT and 81mm SGD.
(g) Interface between the Computer, Instructor Console and Firing Post.
(h) Digital state of act and Audio system for simultaneous simulation of battle noises.
(j) Lend itself to containerisation.
The equipment should be of robust design and should enable training of basic as well as advance missilery and gunnery skills of ICV BMP-2. The simulator should enable the Infantry Combat Vehicle gunner and crew commander to perform various functions and tasks relating to selection prioritising and engagement of targets and operation of controls as faithfully as in a real Infantry Combat Vehicle BMP-2. The crew should particularly be able to detect, identify, acquire, track, range, select ammunition, aim, fire and apply corrections using the Konkurs ATGM System, 30mm Cannon, 7.62mm coaxial machine gun (PKT) and SGD.
It should consist of following sub-systems:
(a) Turret Station.
(b) Visual Subsystem.
(c) Firing Facilities
(d) Sound Simulation
(e) Instructor's Station
The interior of turret mock up should conform to the interior of actual BMP-2 turret to the extent of relevant controls required for simulation. It should have identical location of various components and controls with similar feel, reaction and characteristics as existing in service equipment. Following should be incorporated:
(a) It should facilitate training on following types of weapons / equipment used in the BMP-2:
(i) Konkurs Missile System and upgraded version when available.
(ii) Main gun 30 mm Cannon.
(iii) 7.62mm PKT.
(iv) 81mm SGD.
(b) The gunner and commander should be able to perform all actions required for the preparation of the ATGM and guns for operation and subsequent engagement of targets.
(c) The system should offer target ranges from 100m to 4000m, in both static and dynamic.
(d) System should be able to simulate effects of Konkurs missile and all types of ammunition fired from 30mm Cannon, 7,62 PKT and 81mm SGD.
(e) It should facilitate engagement of aerial targets through simulation.
(f) It should allow the crew to use the gun in manual, auto, aided and commander's override control mode.
(g) It should provide facilities for inter communication between gunner, crew commander and instructor.
(h) Software should be lend itself to upgradation to incorporate any changes of Missile and Gunnery Systems of ICV BMP-2 in future.
(j) Should lend itself to modification with integrated TI sights for ATGM, 30mm Cannon and PKT.
This system should simulate the terrain pattern, scenery and sight patterns along with the targets and present the effects of firing as seen by the gunner and commander during day and night. Visual scene generation should be of such high resolution (minimum of 1280x1024 pixels) that sufficient clarity and depth of perception is possible to enable an effective simulation of a firing sequence to be enacted realistically. The visuals should be generated by CGI technique. Requirements are as follows:
(a) Terrain Pattern. The terrain should cover an area of 20 x 20 km in real world coordinates. Each frame dimension to be 5 x 5 km (It is desirable that the system must have the facility to accept diqitised military maps of designated area and reproduce the same on the screen as training
(b) Display Window For Vision Instruments. It should have the following facilities:
(a) The view should have 360 degrees look around facility in visuals through sights and periscopes.
(ii) The field of view and perception of depth when viewed through the day/night sight should conform to actual service equipment.
(iii) The qraticule markings on both commander and gunner sights should conform to service equipment specification.
(iv) The presentation of visuals when viewed, through the day/night sights should be as seen through the actual sights.
(v) Lend itself to upgradation to integrated / stand alone TI sights as and when integrated with the wpn systems.
(c) Background scene and Objective. The picture presented at the display should be as realistic as possible with shading, texturing and occulation. Inter-vis of objective should be realistic. An objective library to be incorporated to include following objectives, which can be inserted at desired places in the terrain, over and above the designed scenery to facilitate in presentation of different scenes:
(i) Tanks (T-59, T-69, M-48, T-80UD, T-85, M1A1 Abraham, T-55, Vijayanta, T-72, T-90 -and Arjun). (Objective library should be capable of up gradation as per future introduction of equipment in the armed forces of the sub continent).
(ii) BMP 1&2, M113 APC and M-1 Bradley APC
(iii) Aerial targets - Attack Helicopters, remotely Piloted Vehicle, Drones and low flying FGA.
(iv) Jeep with aerials/Jeep Mtd ATGMs.
(vi) Infantry concentrations in open/trenches.
(vii) Field fortification-Bunkers, Pill boxes.
(d) Varying Visibility Effects.
(i) The system should be able to depict various visibility patterns as available during day/night during different weather conditions.
(ii) It should be able to incorporate illuminations effects of natural/artificial illumination available through air, arty, mortar and 84fnm RL.
(iii) It should be able to depict effects of TI sights.
(e) Targets. The system should offer targets ranging from 100m to 4000m, both static and dynamic mode. The targets should be presented with reasonable level of details and high fidelity lo enable identification of friend and foe. Other related aspects are:
(i) Targets must confirm to specification of actual equipment to be depicted and must be scaled as per range from view point.
(ii) Target must be capable of moving at different speeds including speed variation during a particular (shoot) engagement (Auto Random/Instructor controlled movement).
(iii) Targets must appear in various profiles, i.e., head-on, oblique, lateral random path etc.
(iv) Targets should have capability to fire back at the trainee ICV in a realistic manner.
(v) Different types of targets should be capable of moving and reacting as per logical rules applicable to the equipment.
f) Effects of Firing. The effects of firing should be depicted realistically both at
firer's and target end, as per the type of ammunition used. (Firer End-shock of discharge, flash, obscuration, fumes/dust, sight shift, Target End-tracer, dust and flight path/trajectory).
(g) Behavior of Projectile. The visual should depict trajectory behavior of projectiles and tracer as per patterns established by available range tables. Lead angles for effects of wind, temperature and moving targets should be simulated/injected.
Should facilitate training of BMP-2 gunner and commander in firing of Konkurs Missile, 30mm Cannon, 7.62mm PKT and 81mm Smoke Grenade Discharger. The system should facilitate firing practice in both Day and Night conditions. The system should lend itself to upgradation as per improvements in missilery and gunnery aspects of BMP-2. Crew should be able to perform the following through simulation:
(a) ATGM System.
(i) Execute pre launch procedure.
(ii) Track the missile during the flight path.
(iii) Identify hit/miss and magnitude of error (if miss).
(iv) Pilot gunner to estimate range. It will enable him to overcome intermediate shell’s vis a vis time of flight.
(v) Gunner’s sitting and firing position should be realistic and a akin to the one being used in an ICV BMP-2.
(vi The system should be able to depict tech failures/other failures in a snapping of wire.
(vii) Obscuration at launch.
(viii) Tracer flare during flight.
(ix) Noise and vibrations of initial launch.
(x) Missile grounding due to inaccurate tracking by the gunner including incorporation of actual sight and goniometer parameters.
(b) 30mm Cannon/7.62mm PKT. The main gun and co-axial machine gun should have the following firing facilities incorporated:
(i) Manual mode, Single/Slow/Rapid rate of fire.
(ii) Auto and Aided mode with stab system.
(iii) Target designation mode.
(iv) Commander override control facility.
(v) Night firing using passive/TI modes of sight.
(vi) Different rates of fires as existing in actual system.
(vii) Ammunition selection lever facility.
(viii) Details of ammunition expended / balance and type of ammunition available should be displayed in the commander window of the control box.
(ix) Simulation of likely faults in the 30mm Cannon and 7,62mm PKT, its feed systems, stab system, firing circuits, should be possibly.
Effective and realistic sound environment should be simulated. The simulated sounds should be fed in crew headphones. The sound of battle noises, armament firing, gun control equipment and Infantry Combat Vehicle engine should be simulated and these should be simultaneous and distinguishable. The muffling of other sounds by engine once started should be realistic. Effective and realistic sound simulation of the following effects to be incorporated:
(a) Noise of BMP engine.
(b) Artillery shelling.
(c) Track/engine noise of moving tanks.
(d) Gun unlock.
(e) Closing of hatch.
(f) Opening of cover and closing weight.
(g) Loading of gun.
(h) Movement of ammunition belt.
(j) Exhaust blower.
(k) Traversing of Turret manually.
(I) Elevating of gun manually.
(m) Noise of BMP engine.
(n) Switching ON stab motor.
(o) Converter motor.
(p) Firing of main gun, 7,62mm PKT and smoke dischargers.
(q) From launching of the ATGM to hitting the target.
This should be the main controlling station from where the simulation sequence will be started, monitored, assessed and concluded, It should be interactive and user friendly, In addition to being the main interface unit between the various sub systems, the instructor's station should be capable of the following:
(a) Provide ON-SCREEN display of the status of all relevant switches and various sub-assemblies of the mock-up.
(b) Inter-communication with the crew.
(c) Monitor sight picture of gunners sight and commanders sight at all time.
(d) Provision to Freeze/Restart a session in progress.
(e) Provision to inject static and dynamic targets including aerial at required distance, bearing, height, speed and path.
(f) Provision to vary visibility conditions.
(g) Facility to generate/store/alter various training exercises through scene editor as per the requirement.
(h)The instructor should be able to invoke 'Target Designation Mode'.
(j) Facility to induce faults in the firing circuits.
(k) Provision to fill in details of firing, hit/miss of the trainee.
(I) Provide trainee's result in the form of a printed report (performance and evaluation).
(m) Provision of ON-LINE help.
(n) The instructor should be able to inject new objects into the scenery including obscuration related to artillery shelling, armour move etc
Engagement of targets in a realistic tactical environment should be possible. It should include the following:
(a) Target Recognition. 3D targets should be depicted to make them more realistic so that the trainee can recognize friendly and enemy targets.
(b) Selective Engagements. The crew should be able to carry out a quick threat analysis of the visible equipment and engage the most threatening target first.
(c) Active Hostile Targets. It should be possible to simulate hostile targets which engage and destroy the trainees Infantry Combat Vehicle within a reasonable predetermined time.
(d) Versatility of the simulator for exercising crew in sustained engagement of variety of targets in quick succession, in diverse scenarios using the ATGM system, 30mm Cannon, 7.62mm PKT and Smoke Grenade Dischargers.
Tonnes of iron
Shot at Siege of Sebastopol during Crimean War
Revolutions per minute
Does a bullet fired from Lee Enfield rifle, as used in both world wars
The Nizam of Hyderabad raised in 1975 for his war against the Marathas
Is an effective range of Big Bertha, the World War I howitzer
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