The Zenit-3SL Integrated Launch Vehicle is a three-staged rocket on non-toxic propellants (liquid oxygen and kerosene RG-1) intended for injection of spacecrafts into various near-Earth orbits and escape trajectories. It is created on the basis of two-staged rocket Zenit-2 LV of the Yuzhnoye SDO origin, upper stage (US) DM-SL and payload unit.
The Zenit-3SL Integrated Launch Vehicle (ILV) is a three-staged rocket on non-toxic propellants (liquid oxygen and kerosene RG-1) intended for injection of spacecrafts into various near-Earth orbits and escape trajectories. It is created on the basis of two-staged rocket Zenit-2 LV of the Yuzhnoye SDO origin, upper stage DM-SL and payload unit .
The Zenit-3SL ILV operates in composition of the Sea Launch rocket-space complex used by the International Company Sea Launch for providing commercial launch services. The first launch was performed on March 27, 1999. In total 29 succesful launches were carried, by April 20, 2009. From 1985 to 2009 the basic Zenit-2 LV was launched 37 times, from them 30 - successfully. Besides, the improved units of its first stage were used in capacity of the strap-on boosters for Energia LV and performed successfully within two launches (in total 8 rocket units).
Zenit-M rocket complex features the following advantages:
- High reliability and acceptable self-cost adopted at projecting and confirmed by proven manufacturing processes.
- Horizontal technology of integration and transportation allows significant simplification of technological equipment and prelaunch preparation.
- Full automatization of prelaunch processing provides possibility to launch the ILV from the sea platform and ensures the highest safety of personnel.
- Possibility to perform launches along any azimuth, almost not restricted by the flight route.
- Ecologically clean propellants.
|Maximum lift-off mass, t||473|
|Payload mass injected into the GSO transfer orbit, t:||6,0|
|Propellant mass, t||425|
|Engines thrust during LV start, tf||740|
|Maximum acceleration during injection, g||4,0|
|Full length, m||59,6|
|Diameter of LV stages (1st and 2nd), m||3,9|
|Upper stage diameter, m||3,7|
|Nose fairing diameter, m||4,15|
|Number of stages||3|
|Service beginning||March 1999|
Zenit-3SL ILV is designed in accordance with monoblock tandem scheme and contains:
- units of the first and second stages composing Zenit-2S LV of Yuzhnoye elaboration;
- upper stage DM-SLB elaborated by Energia RSC;
- payload unit elaborated by Boeing company.
The general appearance of Zenit-3SL ILV is shown in Figure.
Zenit-3SL LV presents an optimal solution in terms of power characteristics, reliability, accuracy and cost of SC injection, which has been reached owing to utilization of developed systems and optimal planning of production process, transportation technology, prelaunch preparation and launch.
Tonnes of iron
Shot at Siege of Sebastopol during Crimean War
Revolutions per minute
Does a bullet fired from Lee Enfield rifle, as used in both world wars
The Nizam of Hyderabad raised in 1975 for his war against the Marathas
Is an effective range of Big Bertha, the World War I howitzer
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