Ukraine is one of the ten countries in the world engaged in the development and production of radar-location systems. The current Ukrainian potential allows to create radar-location means, which meets modern challenges and threats, as well as the latest trend in science and technology, in a more or less closed loop.
ST-68U – new breath
One of the most famous and popular soviet-made radar products is the ST-68U, which was supplied to India as well. The most famous radar-location manufacturers of Ukraine - SE "Iskra" made a deep modernization of existing radars into the 36D6-M model radars.
Mobile three-coordinate radar 36D6-M
The main purpose of the developed 36D6-M radar is to identify low-flying air targets covered with active and passive obstacles, as well as air traffic control of military and civil aviation. The 36D6-M radar is capable to perform preliminary survey in the sector of 360 degrees, determine the object state ownership, automatic target follow, identify the most dangerous objects, issue the target indications to the command post of the air defence anti-aircraft missile units, and, if necessary, work in the autonomously control point mode. In modernized version, the element base is updated and basic characteristics are increased significantly compared to the predecessor.
36D6-M has a high probability of detecting small objects and low speed objects. Maximum radar operation range is 360 km. 36D6-M is capable to detect small size targets with an effective reflection surface of 1 sq.m when the flying altitude is 100 m at a distance of 42 km, and when the flying altitude is 1000 m at a distance of 110-115 km.
One of the latest developments of the SE "Iskra" is the 3-axis high-precision 80K6T radar, which was first demonstrated in 2017.
80K6T is a circular view radar with wide range of possibilities for detecting and measuring of coordinates of various target types, which is capable to operate under the influence of various interference types.
The main feature of 80K6T is the digital phased active antenna array. It allows to detect and track targets with super-high accuracy. At the same time, due to the one station only the measurement of the target position is performed simultaneously at three coordinates: range, azimuth and altitude. The station is capable to detect airborne objects at distances up to 500 km, at altitudes of more than 40 km. The 80K6T observation locator can track up to 500 targets at one time.
The radar makes up to 12 revolutions per one minute, that provides an update of target data every 5 seconds, and has a large viewing area at the elevation angle - up to 70 degrees, that allows to detect tactical and short-range missiles. In addition, a special signal processing system makes it possible to detect small-sized and cruising missiles which are going at low altitudes with terrain following.
This radar is capable to work with many anti-aircraft missile systems of Soviet production, which once were supplied abroad.
The 80K6T radar designed to meet the requirements for maximum mobility. It consists of two small transport units: one of which is for the operators of the radar station and generators of autonomous power, and second for all the radar equipment. The radar deploying takes 10-15 minutes only. The new station is adapted for transportation by small-scale military transport aircraft.
From P-18 to "Malakhit"
Ukrainian private companies created "Malakhit" VHF-band radar, which is capable to detect aircrafts made with the use of "stealth" technology. Although this radar is called the modernization of the Soviet station P-18, but in many respects it is quite different from its predecessor. Radar has made radical changes and it is a completely new station today. The digital signal processing, ability to communicate (data transfer) with modern automated controlling system (command points), high resistance to countermeasures, ability to measure the radial target velocity, reduced close-in detection zone - up to 2.5 km, increased antenna inclination with respect to the horizontal position within the limits of +15 ÷ - 15 degrees, possibility of use in the composition of the anti-aircraft missile units, cost effectiveness, reduced number of vehicles and much more are implemented in "Malakhit". And most importantly, "Malakhit" has a detection distance of up to 400 km, that is, it detects and tracks a target much better and further than its predecessor.
"Malakhit" radar is capable to perform tasks for detecting targets, including surface targets
The "Malakhit" radar is adopted, serially manufactured and delivered to the Armed Forces of Ukraine. The station successfully performed tasks within the framework of the antiterrorist operation on the eastern borders of Ukraine. Information on the state of the air situation in the region was transmitted on-line to the command post of the Air Forces of Ukraine in Vinnitsa. Some of the stations were handed over to Ukrainian sailors who successfully exploited "Malakhit" under conditions of another subterranean surface, different from the typical for Soviet P-18.
New opportunities with DAA
One more interesting direction of development of radar-location means among Ukrainian manufacturers is the creation of digital phased antenna arrays. Thus, “SpetsTechnoExport” company has presented a technology of digital antenna arrays (DAA) for the construction of various perspective radar-location systems.
Traditional antenna systems of radar stations have one beam that scans the space by mechanical rotation of the mirror or antenna's horn through azimuth and location angle. The main difference of DAA technology is the implementation of spatial multi channeling, which allows viewing of a whole sector of space, for example, 30x60 degrees simultaneously. That is, the radar receiver receives and processes information from the entire area of the viewing space simultaneously.
The second difference from the usual radar is that after the frequency conversion the signal is fed immediately to the analog-to-digital converter, and the further processing of information is already performed in digital form and does not require further signal amplification.
Another important feature of radar station with DAA is its reliability. Failure of several tens of percents of the antenna sheet elements will not disrupt the task performing, but due to the high degree of the structural elements unification and built-in control system the maintenance and repair of the station is much simplified.
One of the vivid examples of DAA technology implementation is the variant of the ZSU-23-4 “Shilka” self-propelled antiaircraft gun modernization. In the new self-propelled antiaircraft gun, in particular, the 1RL33M radar station replaced with Rokach-AS DAA, which is capable of operating in all around, search and automatic target following modes.
ZSU-23-4M-A with Rokach-AS DAA
In the updated “Shilka”, the radar detects and tracks even UAVs with an effective surface of scattering of about 0.01 sq.m at distances up to 7 km. In general, the new radar by far exceeds the capabilities of its predecessor. So, if the scanning sector of the old radar was 15 degrees, and during the tracking, the width of the directivity pattern was 1 degree, then in the new radar, the space review is already carried out in the sector of 18 degrees both through azimuth and location angle simultaneously.
Rokach-AS DAA is capable to make clear the targets quickly both independently and according to the target designation data. In addition, the DAA allows to track several targets within the range of directivity pattern simultaneously, and in the case of a single target engagement it's proceed to the preparation for the next target engagement almost instantaneous.
In general, today, Ukrainian manufacturers offers interesting solutions in the field of radar location, which allows potential customers to obtain modern weapons samples, that correspond to the latest world trends, for the best financial resources, if we talk about modernization of existing vehicle fleet.
ДП ДГЗП «СпецТехноЕкспорт»
Державне зовнішньоторговельне підприємство «СпецТехноЕкспорт» є повністю державною компанією, створеною в 1998 році Урядом України, основним видом діяльності якої є експортно-імпортні відносини на світовому ринку озброєнь.
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